Type 2 Diabetes: Diet and Nutritional Treatment
Type 2 diabetes, non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, which affects a significant part of society. As is known, there are two types of diabetes, type 1 and type 2. Type 1 diabetes is insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. It occurs due to insufficient secretion of insulin in the body. It usually starts in childhood.
The mechanism of formation of type 2 diabetes is different. There is insulin production in the body; however, glucose entry into the cells cannot be achieved because insulin receptors are disrupted. In this case, glucose stays in the blood and the sugar level in the blood rises.
Type 2 diabetes is usually seen in people who are over middle-aged and have weight problems. In terms of its formation dynamics, it is possible to say that type 2 diabetes is a lifestyle disease. Therefore, lifestyle changes, proper nutrition, and regular exercise are the first steps of treatment.
- Especially in the studies conducted in recent years; It has been observed that the incidence of diabetes has increased due to obesity and wrong eating habits.
- Low or high blood sugar is very dangerous. The aim of type 2 diabetes treatment is to bring blood sugar to the required level and keep it in balance.
- Thus, complications caused by type 2 diabetes are reduced and the progression of the disease is prevented. Having a normal level of blood sugar minimizes the damage of the disease to the organs. Therefore, the most important treatment of type 2 diabetes is to regulate the diet.
- A type 2 diabetes nutrition list is prepared by doctors and dietitians. Experts recommend that people with type 2 diabetes eat a balanced and healthy diet, especially away from sugar.
Sample one-day menu for people with type 2 diabetes:
- 1 hard-boiled egg or low-fat omelet
- 1 matchbox size low-fat feta cheese
- 2 slices of whole wheat bread
- 1 medium tomato
- Cucumber, arugula, parsley, etc. greens
- 2 walnuts or 6-7 low-salt olives
- 1 serving of fruit
- 1 glass of buttermilk
- 1 portion of legumes or vegetable meal with olive oil
- 2-3 slices of wholemeal bread
- 1 bowl of homemade yogurt
- seasonal green salad
- 1 slice of low-fat cheese
- 1 slice of whole-wheat bread
- 150 grams of fish, red or white meat
- 1 bowl of homemade yogurt or a glass of buttermilk
- 2 slices of whole wheat bread
- seasonal salad
- 1 serving of fruit
- 1 glass of semi-skimmed milk
Type 2 Diabetes Nutritional Treatment
How should diabetic patients be fed? Let’s examine together the rules that will help regulate the diet of diabetes patients:
- Type 2 diabetes patients should take care to maintain their ideal weight. Diabetes patients who want to lose weight can easily reach the ideal weight with the nutrition list recommended by the dietitian. It is recommended that they lose a maximum of 2-4 kilos per month. Since losing weight faster will cause blood sugar balance to deteriorate, they should be careful in this regard.
- Foods with a high glycemic index should be avoided. These foods cause blood sugar to rise.
- They should be fed as 3 main meals and 3 snacks. Considering factors such as age, height, weight, and metabolic rate, the daily carbohydrate, fat, and protein balance should be planned.
- In between meals, foods containing protein and carbohydrates should be consumed together. Foods such as breadcrumbs, cheese, yogurt, ayran, nuts, and fruit can be preferred.
- It is very important to include calcium-containing foods in snacks. Thus, blood sugar is balanced. For this reason, calcium source foods such as buttermilk, homemade yogurt, or milk should be included in every meal, even in small amounts.
- Foods with a low glycemic index should be included. Whole wheat or rye bread should be consumed instead of white bread, and bulgur should be consumed instead of white rice.
- Salad and whole wheat bread should be consumed at every meal.
- Olive oil should be preferred over butter.
- Frying, fast food, packaged foods with additives and sugar should be avoided.
- Care should be taken to drink at least 2 liters of water every day.
- Cinnamon support can be taken to suppress sweet cravings. Sweet cravings can be overcome by adding cinnamon to yogurt, fruit, and water.
- Delicatessen products such as salami, sausage, sausage should be avoided.
What Are the Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes?
The most common symptoms of type 2 diabetes can be summarized as follows:
- dry mouth
- frequent feeling of thirst
- drinking a lot of water
- frequent urination
- feeling of hunger
- Long-term hunger tremors
- Weakness or weakness despite eating a lot
- Dry, itchy, and sensitive skin
- Delayed healing of skin wounds
- have frequent infections
- Numbness referred to as tingling in the hands and feet
What is the Difference Between Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes?
- The differences between type 1 and type 2 diabetes are wondered by both patients and their relatives. Although the names of these two diseases are similar, there are serious differences between them.
- Type 1 diabetes occurs because the pancreas cannot produce insulin. Often, autoimmune problems prevent the pancreas from producing insulin. Insulin is essential in the treatment of type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes patients cannot survive without insulin therapy.
- Type 2 diabetes occurs as a result of insulin resistance and insulin secretion disorder that develops due to genetic factors. Type 2 diabetes is more common. Almost 90 percent of diabetes patients in the community have type 2 diabetes.
- Type 2 diabetes was called adult-type diabetes in the past. The reason for this is that this disorder is usually seen in overweight and middle-aged people. Type 1 diabetes, on the other hand, was called juvenile type because it usually occurs in childhood. Today, it is known that type 1 diabetes can be seen at more advanced ages and type 2 diabetes can be seen at earlier ages.
- Lifestyle changes, regulation of nutrition, and exercise have an important effect on the treatment of type 2 diabetes patients. In addition, oral antidiabetics are used under the supervision of a doctor.
- Insulin therapy has no place in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. However, in the later stages of type 2 diabetes, a decrease in the insulin secretion capacity of the patients may occur. This causes patients to show symptoms similar to those with type 1 diabetes. In addition, loss of kidney function and liver failure may occur in advanced stages. In such cases, insulin therapy may be necessary.