What should be the diet for obese children
It is known that the roots of adult obesity lie in childhood. Dietary treatment for obesity forms the basis of therapeutic measures. KS Ladodo, L.S. Trofimenko (1982) offer food sets and sample menus for overweight children at different age periods and give some advice on the nutrition of obese children. Diet for children with obesity: examples with recommendations.
Diet for obese children
In recent years, according to doctors, the number of obese children has increased significantly. What is characteristic of this disease?
Obesity is accompanied by excessive accumulation of fat in the body, causes changes in the cardiovascular, nervous, hormonal systems, and disrupts metabolism. If left untreated, children grow up to remain obese into adulthood. Moreover, a long-term illness causes formidable complications, often leading to disability and even death.
Treatment – diet
Regardless of the cause and form of obesity, diet therapy is the main method of treatment. It is necessary to strictly follow the diet for a long time. The earlier the treatment is started, the faster the recovery will come.
The dietary therapy recommended for obese children is based on the principle of gradually limiting food intake. At the beginning of treatment, it is enough to make the necessary changes in the child’s diet in order to adjust the diet, determine the set of foods, their quantity. It should be remembered that the child should receive high-calorie meals during the hours of greatest physical activity. It is worth considering this when composing a diet for children.
The daily set of products at the first stage of treatment should satisfy the age-related need of the child’s body for basic substances. However, this set has its own characteristics. So, meat, chicken and fish should be of low-fat varieties (meat – beef category II, veal, rabbit; fish – cod breeds). From dairy products, it is desirable to give kefir, low-fat cottage cheese, cheese such as Baltic or Poshekhonsky.
Usually, with the introduction of a strict diet, an obese child loses weight. If the weight loss turns out to be insignificant, then two weeks after the start of treatment, it is necessary to apply a “moderate” diet, limiting the calorie content due to easily digestible carbohydrates and refractory fats. White bread, sugar and sweets are excluded from the food set for older children. Sugar is limited to young children. The food is cooked as usual. The amount of liquid and salt is assigned according to the age norm. Table 3.1 shows the daily food sets for obese children of different ages.
Children with advanced complications of the form of obesity, when overweight reaches 50% or more in comparison with the norm, are prescribed stricter diets. The diet for obese children involves the elimination of sugar and sweets, confectionery and pasta, bread, muffins, cookies, semolina, ice cream, lemonade, tea, grapes, raisins, kvass, coffee, cocoa from the diet. The amount of sweet fruits and vegetables, cereals, potatoes, sour cream, cream, fermented baked milk is limited. The food is cooked boiled, the first course is vegetarian.
The diet of such children should not contain extractives, spicy, spicy, smoked, salty snacks that enhance appetite. It is better to cook the first courses in vegetable broth and only 2 times a week – in lean meat or fish broth. Meat, fish, chicken are best consumed in low-fat varieties and boiled. Side dishes for main courses should be mainly vegetables. It is good to give unsweetened dried fruit compotes. Fried, seasonings are excluded. The food is slightly undersalted. You need to limit the amount of fluids, so children should not be allowed to drink between meals. In addition, the amount of liquid in the first and third dishes decreases (up to 100-200 m in the first dish and up to 50-150 ml in the third dish, depending on age).
Fasting days are also recommended. They are carried out strictly under the supervision of a doctor, preferably in a hospital setting, and under the supervision of parents. Fasting days are allowed only for children of senior school age. “Meat” is effective when a child is given 250 g of lean boiled meat and 300 g of vegetable and fruit salad without bread during the day. The garnish can consist of leafy greens, cabbage, tomatoes, cucumbers, zucchini, Antonov apples. Another example of a fasting day: during the day, a teenager drinks 1 liter of kefir (without sugar and bread) – 5 times 200 g each.
Some more tips
It is necessary to feed the child at the same time, at least 4-5 times a day, in small portions to eliminate the feeling of hunger. To do this, the menu should include a large number of vegetables. High-calorie meals are given in the first half of the day, during the period of greatest physical activity.
Dry food is extremely harmful. But you can only offer a child liquid with a meal.
A growing and developing child’s body needs proteins, mainly of animal origin. Therefore, the daily menu should include lean meats (beef, veal, rabbit, chicken), cod fish. A special place in the nutrition of children is occupied by dairy products, which also contain protein. In addition, they have a diuretic effect. Milk and dairy products, especially fermented milk, should be on the menu every day. Kefir, low-fat cottage cheese are especially useful. Milk products containing a high percentage of fat (cream, sour cream, fermented baked milk, baked milk, some fatty cheeses) should be given in small quantities.
In the diet, it is necessary to provide for vegetable oils (sunflower, olive), which are necessary for a growing body. For teenagers, 10-15 g of oil a day is enough. It is advisable to use it in its natural form (for example, dressing salads).
Obese children should not be given a lot of sweets, especially dishes containing sugar, glucose, which are easily absorbed by the body. That is why canned fruits and juices are not recommended: they have a high sugar content. Therefore, it is better to replace sugar with xylitol, which is equal to it in sweetness.
Fresh and dried vegetables and fruits are especially useful for obese children, as they contain a large amount of fiber and pectin, which are necessary for intestinal function. In addition, vegetables and fruits provide the body with vitamins, minerals, and have a diuretic effect. Children can eat cucumbers, cabbage, tomatoes, radishes, squash, pumpkin, carrots, sweet and sour fruits and berries. However, with a strict diet, the amount of potatoes and legumes is limited: beets and carrots are boiled.