Types of Packaging

Types of Packaging

The modern market makes huge demands not only on the quality of the goods, but also on the packaging for it. There are many types of packaging made from different materials. All types of packaging have their own purpose.

Packaging is a kind of “cover” into which a certain product is immersed. There are a huge number of types of packaging, each of which is made of a specific material, meets a wide variety of goals and objectives and is designed for a specific type of product.

History of appearance

Many millennia ago, our ancestors faced the urgent question of high-quality preservation, saving and transportation in proper form of various products and household items. This is how the concept of “packaging” or storage container was gradually born.

The ancient packaging was absolutely not similar to the modern one. The very first primitive packaging can be called jugs and other vessels that were made from clay in Ancient Egypt 6 millennia BC.

A whole millennium will pass until the inhabitants of Europe master pottery. In 1500 BC. For the first time, the Egyptians tried to blow items out of glass that were shaped like a bowl and a plate.

A little more, and glass bottles appeared, in which doctors stored medicines and cosmetics. Several hundred years later, in 500 BC, the Romans, Celts and the inhabitants of Gaul began to make barrels from wood (oak, pine). At first, they were intended only for storing and transporting wine, and later for all other products.

AD 105 marks the first paper produced by the Chinese. Initially, they used textiles, papyrus, animal skins as a raw material. In the 16th century, paper production began to improve in Russia.

After 200 years, cotton and linen clothes bags were widely used everywhere.

At the beginning of the 19th century, glass and then metal cans appeared; the Germans began to use the first paper labels attached to the packaging of goods. In the same period, waxed paper for packaging, coated with linseed oil from the inside, became widespread.

In the middle of the 19th century, foil for packing chocolate was produced in Europe, boxes for matches and corrugated cardboard for packing hats appeared. In another 30 years, special caps will be produced for glass bottles, and aluminum tubes for pharmaceutical ointments.

In the 20th century, a real boom in the development of packaging production begins. They began to use plastic and polyethylene for packing goods. In everyday life and in production, wooden boxes, cellophane bags with handles were actively used.

The filter tea bags that came into use in 1960 are no longer surprising. Packaging at that time had long ceased to respond to narrowly focused tasks. In addition to the function of hygienic preservation of goods, its dosed packaging, ease of transportation, and preservation from damage, the packaging had to fulfill an aesthetic function, as well as the task of marking to identify a specific manufacturer.

Everything about modern packaging

In our time, ecological packaging, vacuum packaging and stretch films have become widespread. A variety of materials and the development of production technologies have made it possible to create the most unusual types of containers designed to meet the most complex consumer problems.

Why is she needed

Any container has several tasks at once that it must perform:

  • product hygiene;
  • protecting it from the influence of external conditions (moisture, sunlight, penetration of odors, insects, rodents, etc.);
  • packaging of goods by quantity, grades, types;
  • depreciation, ease of transportation without mechanical damage to the goods;
  • increasing the aesthetic properties of products;
  • product labeling;
  • advertising of products, recognition of the goods of a certain manufacturer.

Sometimes additional devices are used, which are used in the process of packaging goods. For example, it can be a dressing material (braid, rope), adhesive tape (scotch tape) for additional fixation.

What happens

Packaging containers are divided into three main groups by purpose:

  • internal (or consumer);
  • workshop (in-plant);
  • external (shipping) packaging.

The first type of packaging is considered an inseparable part of the product; along with it, the product is sold to the consumer. Once purchased, the inner packaging becomes the property of the purchaser. Consumer packaging includes various tubes for cream or drugs, perfume bottles, pill blisters, candy wrappers and shoe boxes, cans, plastic packaging for dairy products, and the like.
Intra-plant or workshop packaging is used inside the enterprise for the purpose of moving materials, raw materials, parts of goods to the workplaces of assemblers and manufacturers. Such containers include various types of pallets, metal and wooden boxes (lattice or solid).

External, in other words, shipping packaging is needed for the movement of products from the manufacturing enterprise to the consumer. It is sometimes used to store goods. Outer packaging includes all kinds of barrels, boxes (wooden, iron, plastic), containers of various sizes, flasks, drums, packing bags made of fabric, polyethylene or paper.

The manufacturer includes the cost of packaging in the price of the product sold, so it is fully paid by the buyer.

Classifies packaging into different categories. Depending on the material from which it is made, the packaging can be:

  • rigid (made of iron, glass, wood, hard cardboard). These can be various cans, bottles, boxes, barrels, boxes;
  • soft (cellophane, fabric, paper, as well as various ropes, ribbons, twines);
  • combined – tetra packs and other analogues.

Depending on the size, the packaging can be:

  • volumetric (large-sized), heavy;
  • medium-sized;
  • small-sized, lightweight.

Depending on the frequency of use:

  • disposable;
  • reusable (more durable).

Depending on the properties of the item being placed:

  • food (from non-toxic food materials, must have a hygienic certificate);
  • nonfood;
  • for dry substances;
  • for liquid.

Packaging can provide a sufficiently long shelf life for the product, for example, vacuum packaging , or intended for temporary storage (plastic bag, paper or cloth bag, cardboard box).

It must certainly meet certain requirements: maintain the quality of the product, be durable and reliable (airtight, withstand mechanical damage), clean, environmentally friendly (not harm the environment, easy to dispose of).

The container must be compatible with the product that is placed in it, not change its characteristics and properties. In addition, the manufacturer always considers whether the economic costs of a particular package are reasonable. Its cost is usually several times less than the cost of the product itself, and not vice versa.

The price of a container is added up depending on the size of the package and the materials used, the funds for its production. It is important that the packaging is safe for the life and health of the consumer, and also has a presentable appearance. Designers develop the appearance of packages depending on their purpose. Boxes and wrappers can be made in a gift, festive style, or, conversely, in a neutral, austere one. In any case, the packaging should attract the buyer, making him want to put the product in the basket.

When producing packaging from plastic or cardboard intended for food, the manufacturer makes sure that the container does not open too easily. Otherwise, there is a risk that the product will spill out (spill out) outside; or the customer can open the packaging in the store, change the product, or try it.

I would also like to note that each package we use increases the volume of the landfill in the nearby region. Therefore, it is important not only to monitor the quality and properties of packaging, but also to take care of its disposal. In many countries, packaging recycling plants have been operating for a long time, which give a second life to glass, paper, polyethylene, plastic, while helping to solve urgent environmental problems.


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