What Is Rapeseed Oil? Benefits, Uses and Harms?
The rapeseed plant, which entered our country as a vegetable oil source with the Second World War, first started to be produced in the Thrace Region. Following this region, it is also grown in Southern Marmara, Southeastern Anatolia, Mediterranean, Çukurova, Aegean, Central Anatolia and Black Sea.
Rapeseed has a structure similar to a two-napped pod and is contained in a capsule. Rapeseeds, whose color is between dark brown and black, have a weight of 3 to 7 grams. Rapeseed oil is a very light, odorless and tasteless oil. Rapeseed oil, which is produced from the rapeseed plant, which is very easy to cultivate, is also very economical compared to other oil varieties.
The rapeseed plant, which is a very effortless plant compared to sunflower or olive tree agriculture, can adapt to any climate and any soil. The rapeseed plant, which can grow very quickly and produce easily, is not affected by drought or frost. Rapeseed oil, which is desired to be cultivated by the farmers due to its protective feature of the producer’s interests, is also an easy oil type to process.
What Is Rapeseed Oil? What are its features?
Rapeseed oil obtained from the plant, which contains 15-24% protein and 40-50% oil, is a rich source of linoleic and oleic acids. 1 tablespoon, or approximately 14 grams of rapeseed oil, contains 120 calories, 1 gram of unsaturated fat, 4 grams of polyunsaturated fat and 8 grams of monounsaturated fatty acids.
Rapeseed oil, which has a high boiling point, is also known as rapiska or rapitsa. 450 grams of oil is obtained from approximately 1 kilogram of rapeseed seeds. Biodiesel fuel is obtained from the reaction of rapeseed oil with methanol. Rapeseed is used as a waste oil to make fuel. Rapeseed oil, which is used for lubricating steam machines, started to be used in meals in the 1950s.
The remaining oil residue of the rapeseed plant is considered as pulp. Rapeseed meal, which contains high protein, has an important place in animal nutrition. The erucic acid and glucosinolate components in rapeseed plant have toxic properties. However, these substances were eliminated by improving the rapeseed plant. Since it threatens human health as food and animal health as pulp, the cultivation of rapeseed plant was banned in 1979.
Rapeseed crops, which have been improved and genetically modified, have begun to be planted. Rapeseed oil is the oil currently known as canola. Canola oil is also known as Canadian Oil, Low Acid, because the country that introduced the rapeseed plant to the whole world by breeding is Canada.
How Is Rapeseed Oil Obtained?
The rapeseed plant is a highly poisonous plant. It has been purified from some of the ingredients in its content by genetic improvement studies and turned into edible canola oil. The world production of rapeseed oil, which is obtained by the extraction method from the seeds of the rapeseed plant, reaches approximately 22 million tons.
Studies are still being conducted on the type of oil that has health benefits due to its high protein content. England, Germany, France, Pakistan, Poland, Canada, India and China are among the leading countries in canola oil production. Canola oil, which is a rich source of unsaturated fatty acids, can withstand temperatures of 200 degrees. Although it was a richer source of monounsaturated fatty acids than olive oil during the first harvest, the inability of the first harvest oil to withstand 120 degrees Celsius prevented it from being used as edible oil.
How to Use Rapeseed Oil?
Rapeseed, which is widely used in the food industry in breads, margarines, canned products and processed ready-made food production, is also used as a waste oil in the production of fuel and machine oil and in the cosmetics industry. Its pulp contains high protein and is used as animal feed.
Rapeseed oil, which contains high levels of unsaturated fat, should be consumed cold as it releases harmful substances at high temperatures. Since it can be harmful to human health at frying temperature, it is more beneficial to consume in salads, sauces and appetizers. However, rapeseed oil, which has a neutral feature, is used in the food industry in baking and frying processes that require high heat.
In addition to these, rapeseed oil is used to make materials such as biofuels, varnishes, lubricants, pesticides, newspaper ink, synthetic rubber, soap, industrial oils, lipstick and candles. In most of the European Union countries, rapeseed cultivation is done to obtain biological diesel oil. While diesels obtained from rapeseed oil can be used easily in newly produced car models, it can be used in old model cars after changing the gaskets and hoses due to the aggressiveness of the oil.
What Are the Benefits of Rapeseed Oil?
- Rapeseed oil, which has a very low amount of saturated fat, is very rich in unsaturated fatty acids. While the saturated fat ratio is 12% in sunflower oil and 15% in olive oil, this ratio is 7% in rapeseed oil.
- Rapeseed oil, which is rich in omega 3 fatty acids, is a type of oil that is beneficial for healthy nervous system development and brain functions.
- Due to its low monounsaturated fat content, it has the ability to lower blood cholesterol levels.
- Rapeseed oil, which contains high levels of vitamin E, is also rich in vitamins A, D and K. Thanks to its high antioxidant content, it has positive effects especially on the skin.
- Rapeseed oil, which has the feature of increasing bowel movements, has an anti-constipation effect.
- Rapeseed oil, which is a rich source of vitamin D, protects children against bone diseases such as rickets. It is a type of network that is beneficial for children’s brain, nervous system, muscle and bone development.
What Are the Harms of Rapeseed Oil?
Rapeseed oil, which has a negative effect on heart diseases, causes side effects such as anemia, constipation, vision damage, and hypersensitivity when consumed excessively. It is among the harms of rapeseed oil that it causes permanent damage to the kidneys and adrenal glands.
Due to the erucic acid contained in rapeseed oil, which has negative effects on the immune system, excessive consumption may cause damage to the circulatory and nervous system. One of the biggest dangers is that it increases the risk of developing lung cancer.
One of the reasons underlying the harms of rapeseed oil is the amount of trans fat in its content. The use of rapeseed oil in margarines further increases the risks of trans fat.
As a result, rapeseed oil is a confusing type of oil that has benefits, but has harms, and its benefits and harms neutralize each other. Rapeseed oil, which is a risky oil to use, should be consumed carefully due to the toxic substances in its content. When using canola oil, which is prepared by genetically modifying the rapeseed plant, it should be consumed considering that it is genetically modified.