What is Melatonin? Where is it Found?

Melatonin is a natural hormone that accelerates the transition to sleep and improves sleep quality. Secreted by the pineal gland, melatonin effectively regulates the body’s biological clock. This hormone, which is very important in regulating sleep rhythm, also helps in the secretion of other hormones necessary for a healthy life.

In cases where the body does not produce melatonin, sleep patterns can be established with synthetic melatonin supplements. Foods with high melatonin content can be consumed. Among the answers to the question of what is the melatonin hormone, it should also be noted that this hormone is called the Dracula hormone.

As the Nefis Yemek Tarifleri editorial team, we focus on the frequently asked questions about the melatonin hormone, which has an important function in biological and physiological activities, in our content prepared with the help of scientific sources. We wish you enjoyable reading!

What is Melatonin?

Melatonin; 85% of it is a type of hormone naturally secreted by the body, especially at night, in the pineal gland section of the brain. It regulates the circadian rhythm called sleep and wake cycle in the body. Since it is a lipophilic hormone, it is a powerful antioxidant.

This hormone, which synchronizes the body’s biological clock, is secreted more, especially in dark environments, and facilitates the transition to sleep; it also improves sleep quality. If you feel more energetic and rested when you wake up in the morning, it can be said that the melatonin hormone function is efficient.

It is effective in balancing body temperature and regulating sleep rhythm. As the weather begins to darken, the melatonin hormone begins to be secreted. When it gets brighter, the hormone secretion by light-sensitive cells stops.

Sleeping during the hours when the melatonin hormone is secreted more will increase your rest efficiency. So, what are those hours?

  • Melatonin hormone begins to be secreted between 9:00 and 10:00 p.m.
  • This hormone is secreted at its highest level between 02.00 and 04.00.
  • Between 05:00 and 07:00, as the weather begins to get brighter, hormone secretion slows down and decreases.

In this hormone secretion cycle, an average of 30 mg of melatonin is synthesized in one night. The level of melatonin in the blood reaches different values ​​during the day and night.  It can be measured at 0-20 pg/dl during the day and 50 to 200 pg/ml at night.

In the body, 85% of the melatonin hormone is secreted in the pineal gland, while 15% is secreted in the stomach, intestines, bone marrow, retina, skin, and white blood cells. Melatonin is secreted in higher quality and greater amounts during the winter months when the nights are longer. Thus, it also increases the quality of sleep.

Foods Containing the Most Melatonin

There are natural foods that help secrete the melatonin hormone. Thanks to these foods, it is easier for the hormone to be secreted at higher levels during sleep hours. So, what is melatonin? We can list the answers to the question of which foods contain the most melatonin as follows;

  • Cherry (Montmorency)
  • Hazelnut
  • Pine nuts
  • Walnut
  • Grape
  • Tomatoes
  • Milk (Cow Milk)
  • Sweetcorn
  • Oat
  • Banana
  • Rice (Jasmine rice)
  • Ginger

Cherry

Amount: 13.5 ng/g (nanogram/gram)

Source*: Reiter RJ, Manchester LC, Tan DX. “Melatonin in walnuts: influence on melatonin levels and total antioxidant capacity of blood.” Nutrition. 2005.

Walnut

Amount*: 3.5 ng/g

Source*: Reiter RJ, Manchester LC, Tan DX. “Melatonin in walnuts: influence on melatonin levels and total antioxidant capacity of blood.” Nutrition. 2005.

Tomatoes

Amount*: 1.5 ng/g

Source*: Reiter RJ, Tan DX, Manchester LC, Qi W. “Biochemical reactivity of melatonin with reactive oxygen and nitrogen species: a review of the evidence.” Cell Biochem Biophys. 2001.

Olive

Amount*: 1.0 ng/g

Source*: Reiter RJ, Tan DX, Manchester LC, Qi W. “Biochemical reactivity of melatonin with reactive oxygen and nitrogen species: a review of the evidence.” Cell Biochem Biophys. 2001.

Grape

Amount*: 0.96 ng/g

Source*: Reiter RJ, Tan DX, Manchester LC, Qi W. “Biochemical reactivity of melatonin with reactive oxygen and nitrogen species: a review of the evidence.” Cell Biochem Biophys. 2001.

Milk

Amount*: 10-40 pg/mL (picogram/milliliter)

Source*: Peuhkuri K, Sihvola N, Korpela R. “Diet promotes sleep duration and quality.” Nutr Res. 2012.

Cherry

It has the highest melatonin content among red fruits. Studies have found that 100 grams of cherries contain 13.5 micrograms of melatonin (Reiter et al., 2005).

Almond

It has the highest amount of melatonin among nuts. 100 grams of almonds contain approximately 3.4 micrograms of melatonin (Gomez et al., 2021).

Egg

It is one of the richest sources of melatonin among animal products. 100 grams of eggs contain 1.9 micrograms of melatonin (Paredes et al., 2009).

Pumpkin seeds

It has a very high melatonin content among herbal products. 100 grams of pumpkin seeds contain 1.8 micrograms of melatonin (Tan et al., 2012).

Fish

Oily fish are especially rich in melatonin. 100 grams of salmon contains 1.2 micrograms of melatonin (Rodriguez-Naranjo et al., 2011).

Food Melatonin Amount Source
Cherry 13.5 ng/g Reiter RJ, Manchester LC, Tan DX. “Melatonin in walnuts: influence on melatonin levels and total antioxidant capacity of blood.” Nutrition. 2005.
Walnut 3.5 ng/g Reiter RJ, Manchester LC, Tan DX. “Melatonin in walnuts: influence on melatonin levels and total antioxidant capacity of blood.” Nutrition. 2005.
Tomatoes 1.5 ng/g Reiter RJ, Tan DX, Manchester LC, Qi W. “Biochemical reactivity of melatonin with reactive oxygen and nitrogen species: a review of the evidence.” Cell Biochem Biophys. 2001.
Olive 1.0 ng/g Reiter RJ, Tan DX, Manchester LC, Qi W. “Biochemical reactivity of melatonin with reactive oxygen and nitrogen species: a review of the evidence.” Cell Biochem Biophys. 2001.
Grape 0.96 ng/g Reiter RJ, Tan DX, Manchester LC, Qi W. “Biochemical reactivity of melatonin with reactive oxygen and nitrogen species: a review of the evidence.” Cell Biochem Biophys. 2001.
Milk 10-40 pg/mL Peuhkuri K, Sihvola N, Korpela R. “Diet promotes sleep duration and quality.” Nutr Res. 2012.
Cherry 13.5 µg/100g Reiter RJ, Manchester LC, Tan DX. “Melatonin in walnuts: influence on melatonin levels and total antioxidant capacity of blood.” Nutrition. 2005.
Almond 3.4 µg/100g Gomez et al., 2021.
Egg 1.9 µg/100g Paredes et al., 2009.
Pumpkin seeds 1.8 µg/100g Tan et al., 2012.
Fish – Salmon 1.2 µg/100g Rodriguez-Naranjo et al., 2011.

Study: “Effects of diet on sleep quality”

Source: Advances in Nutrition, 2016

Findings: This review examined the effects of nutrition on sleep quality and showed that some foods can increase melatonin production. It was emphasized that natural compounds contained in certain foods, especially pine nuts, cherries, and bananas, can stimulate melatonin production and positively affect sleep patterns. It was also stated that regularly consuming these foods can improve sleep quality and support melatonin levels.

What is Melatonin Used For? What Are Its Benefits?

Improves Sleep Quality

Melatonin can improve sleep quality thanks to its circadian rhythm regulation effect. Melatonin, which reduces the time it takes to fall asleep, helps extend the duration of night sleep . Improving and regulating sleep is among the benefits of melatonin.

Study: “The efficacy and safety of exogenous melatonin for primary sleep disorders. “A meta-analysis”

Source: Journal of General Internal Medicine, 2005

Results: This meta-analysis study evaluated the efficacy and safety of melatonin supplements in individuals with primary sleep disorders. The study found that melatonin supplements shortened sleep onset time, reduced nighttime wakefulness, and improved overall sleep quality. It also concluded that serious side effects of melatonin were rare and generally well tolerated.

Strengthens the Immune System

Melatonin, which has antioxidant properties, can provide strong protection against infections by increasing the effectiveness of immune cells. Thus, the immune system is strengthened against free radicals.

Study: “Melatonin and human immune system: Bidirectional interactions”

Source: Journal of Pineal Research, 2003

Findings: This review examined the effects of melatonin on the immune system and how these effects occur. It was emphasized that melatonin neutralizes free radicals thanks to its antioxidant properties and thus protects immune cells. It was also stated that melatonin can regulate immune responses and support immune functions. In particular, these positive effects of melatonin on the immune system indicate that it may play a potential role in regulating immune functions.

Prevents Cell Damage

Melatonin, a powerful antioxidant that neutralizes free radicals, can prevent damage to cells. It can prevent damage caused by oxidative stress.

Study: “Melatonin as a potential agent in the treatment of sarcopenia”

Source: Ageing Research Reviews, 2020

Findings: This review examined the potential of melatonin to reduce cellular damage caused by oxidative stress, with a particular focus on muscle loss during the aging process (sarcopenia). It has been suggested that melatonin’s antioxidant properties may help preserve muscle tissue by reducing the effects of oxidative stress on muscle cells and may prevent age-related muscle loss.

Prevents Eye Infection

One of the answers to the question of what melatonin does is that it protects eye health. In particular, it can protect the immune system from infection. Thanks to melatonin, infection in the eye tissue can be prevented.

Prevents Colon and Breast Cancer

Thanks to the anti-carcinogenic properties of melatonin, the growth of colon and breast cancer cells can be prevented. It has a protective feature against cancer.

Study: “Melatonin and cancer: Current status and future perspectives”

Source: Journal of Pineal Research, 2013

Findings: This review article evaluates the potential of melatonin for cancer prevention and treatment. It focuses on the antioxidant properties, immunomodulatory effects, and tumor growth inhibitory effects of melatonin. The study suggests that melatonin may have the potential to inhibit tumor development and progression, particularly in breast, colon, prostate, and some other types of cancer. However, more research is needed on how these effects work in humans and how effective they are in clinical practice.

Improves Effects of Acute Pancreatitis

Melatonin hormone can relieve symptoms of acute pancreatitis thanks to its anti-inflammatory properties. It can accelerate the healing process by alleviating the effects of this disease.

Study: “Protective effect of melatonin on experimental acute pancreatitis in rats”

Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology, 2007

Results: This study investigated the protective effects of melatonin on experimentally induced acute pancreatitis. Melatonin was found to reduce oxidative stress and suppress inflammation in pancreatic tissues through its antioxidant properties. This study in animal models supports the use of melatonin as a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of acute pancreatitis.

Prevents Kidney Diseases

Melatonin, which reduces oxidative stress in the kidneys, can prevent diseases that will occur in the kidneys. It helps the kidneys to be more resistant.

Reduces Sleep Disorder and Anxiety Drug Dependence

It reduces dependence on drugs used in the treatment of sleep disorders and anxiety. It can show this effect by balancing the quality of sleep.

Strengthens Cardiovascular Health

Melatonin regulates blood pressure and cholesterol levels and strengthens cardiovascular health. Balances blood pressure. It can prevent blockages in the arteries.

Study: “Melatonin and Cardiovascular Disease: A Potential Therapeutic Intervention?”

Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy, 2020

Results: This review examined the effects of melatonin on cardiovascular diseases and its use as a potential therapeutic intervention. It has been suggested that the antioxidant properties of melatonin promote vasodilation by increasing nitric oxide production in vascular smooth muscle cells, thereby reducing blood pressure. It has also been suggested that melatonin may have the potential to prevent the development of atherosclerosis and improve endothelial function.

Reduces Stress and Anxiety

Melatonin helps reduce stress and anxiety in people by balancing chemicals in the brain.

Study: “Melatonin in anxiety disorders: A review of the literature”

Source: Journal of Pineal Research, 2007

Results: This review study evaluated the effects of melatonin on anxiety disorders based on literature data. It has been suggested that melatonin has stress and anxiety reducing effects and that these effects are mediated by neurotransmitters such as serotonin and GABA. However, more studies are needed on how these effects work in humans and their clinical significance.

Regulates Menstrual Cycle

Melatonin is a hormone that helps regulate the secretion of hormones, thus regulating the menstrual cycle. It can balance the hormones of women in menstrual irregularities.

Helps Treat Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s

Melatonin is a hormone with neuroprotective properties. It can stop the progression of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s in the body. It can reduce the effects of these diseases. It protects brain cells and prevents further damage.

Study: “Melatonin in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases: A review of clinical trials”

Source: Molecular Medicine Reports, 2018

Findings: This review examined the potential effects of melatonin in the treatment of Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and other neurodegenerative diseases. It has been suggested that the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of melatonin may have protective effects on nerve cells and slow down neurodegenerative processes. The study also found that melatonin supplements may have the potential to alleviate symptoms of these diseases and improve quality of life.

Balances Body Temperature

Melatonin lowers body temperature during sleep hours and prepares for a better quality sleep process. It is a powerful hormone that balances body temperature.

Cleanses Free Radicals from the Body

Melatonin prevents free radicals that may harm the body and organs, protects cells, and purifies the body by reducing oxidative stress.

Study: “Melatonin as an antioxidant: Under promises but over delivers”

Source: Journal of Pineal Research, 2016

Results: This review examined the antioxidant properties of melatonin and addressed the mechanisms of reducing oxidative stress caused by free radicals. Melatonin was found to inhibit lipid peroxidation by neutralizing free radicals at the cellular level, reduce DNA damage, and protect mitochondrial functions. It was also emphasized that melatonin exhibits synergistic effects with other antioxidants and has the potential to prevent cell damage.

Helps Lower Blood Pressure

Melatonin helps blood vessels dilate, thus lowering high blood pressure. It may reduce the risk and effects of high blood pressure.

Study: “The antihypertensive effect of melatonin: Influence on circadian rhythms in hypertensive patients”

Source: Blood Pressure Monitoring, 2012

Findings: This study examined the effects of melatonin supplements on blood pressure in hypertensive patients. It investigated the potential lowering effects of melatonin on blood pressure due to its secretion during the night and its sleep-regulating effects. The study suggested that melatonin supplements reduced blood pressure at night in hypertensive individuals and that this was due to its regulating effects on circulatory rhythms.

Prevents Neuron Loss

Melatonin, which has neuroprotective effects, protects brain cells. It can prevent the progression of neurological diseases. It can protect brain health.

Study: “Melatonin: A Potential Therapeutic Agent in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease”

Source: Neurological Research, 2017

Results: This review article evaluated the use of melatonin as a potential therapeutic agent in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. It has been suggested that the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of melatonin exert protective effects on neuronal cells, thereby reducing neuronal loss. It has also been stated that melatonin has the potential to prevent neuronal cell damage and promote synaptic plasticity.

Delays Aging of Skin Tissue

Melatonin is a hormone with high antioxidant effects. Thanks to this feature, it delays the aging of skin cells. It helps protect the skin. It can heal damage to skin tissue.

Study: “Melatonin and human skin aging”

Source: Dermato-Endocrinology, 2012

Findings: This review examined the effects of melatonin on the aging process in human skin. It has been suggested that the antioxidant properties of melatonin reduce oxidative stress caused by UV rays and other environmental stressors, thereby protecting skin cells. It has also been stated that melatonin may increase collagen production and improve skin barrier function.

Alleviates Jet-Lag Effect

Melatonin can help the body adapt to the new time zone after the flight. It regulates the circadian rhythm in the body, allowing it to adapt more easily to the time zone of the flight destination. It can reduce pain and stress experienced during the flight process.

Study: “Melatonin and melatonin agonists in the treatment of sleep disturbances during the night and the consequences of jet lag”

Source: Sleep Medicine Reviews, 2009

Results: This review examined the potential of melatonin and melatonin agonists (drugs that stimulate melatonin receptors) to treat sleep disorders during jet lag. Melatonin was found to improve the quality of nighttime sleep and may reduce wakefulness after jet lag. It was also noted that melatonin agonists have similar effects and may be effective in reducing the effects of jet lag.

Melatonin Supplementation and Use

Melatonin supplement use must be under the approval and supervision of a doctor. Melatonin should be used in the amounts and intervals recommended by the doctor you consult.

In cases where the body does not secrete sufficient levels of melatonin, melatonin supplements can be started after consulting a physician. Melatonin supplements are an auxiliary supplement used to establish sleep patterns and increase general body resistance.

Melatonin supplements are usually taken 2 hours before sleep. For melatonin use during pregnancy, you should consult the doctor who is monitoring the pregnancy and get information. For children, its use is only recommended for children with medical needs. Families can start using melatonin during a healthy period by consulting a doctor.

Depending on age, biological characteristics, and the periods deemed appropriate by the doctor, melatonin supplements can be taken between 1 mg and 10 mg. To see its effects, it should be taken at the right time and in the right amount under the supervision of a doctor. To see its effect on sleep, it is recommended to take it before bedtime.

People who have sleep disorders due to their busy work and life tempo can start using melatonin supplements under the supervision of a doctor. If there is chronic medication use or a serious illness, melatonin supplements may interact with medications. It is also not recommended to use vehicles and construction machinery after taking melatonin. To avoid these risks, you should first consult your doctor.

Title: Melatonin for the Prevention and Treatment of Jet Lag

Authors: Herxheimer, A., & Petrie, K. J.

Journal Published: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

Publication Year: 2002

Findings: This systematic review study evaluated the effectiveness of melatonin supplementation in the prevention and treatment of jetlag. The study examined the effects of melatonin use at different dosages and timings on jetlag symptoms. The study showed that melatonin use significantly reduced jetlag symptoms, especially during long-distance travel to the east. The study found that melatonin supplementation improved sleep quality and helped travelers adapt to the new time zone more quickly.

How to Increase Melatonin?

Melatonin is a hormone naturally secreted by the body. However, due to factors such as intense work tempo, exam anxiety, stress, responsibility, depression, unhealthy diet, and caffeine consumption, people may have difficulty falling asleep or sleeping well. In such cases, regulating the melatonin hormone can improve sleep efficiency. So, how can melatonin be increased?

  • Melatonin is secreted in the dark of night; therefore, before going to bed, stay away from the blue light of devices such as televisions, smartphones, etc. Do not turn on lights in the area where you sleep.
  • Create a specific sleep schedule; plan your bedtime and wake-up time.
  • Do not listen to loud music right before sleep, and stay away from news and videos that will affect your emotional state (fear, sadness, etc.).
  • You can take a warm shower before going to bed and wear comfortable clothes made of soft fabrics for sleeping.
  • You can organize your sleeping environment and create a peaceful area.
  • You can listen to light meditation music or music that helps you fall asleep.
  • You can take melatonin supplements under the supervision of a doctor.
  • You can consume small amounts of foods such as cherries, sour cherries, almonds, and bananas, which increase the melatonin hormone.

Frequently Asked Questions About Melatonin

What Causes Melatonin Deficiency?

As we age, melatonin secretion begins to slow down. As it slows down, melatonin deficiency can occur. This can cause diseases such as mood disorders, cancer, type 2 diabetes, and dementia. The deficiency of this hormone, which regulates sleep, can cause sleep disorders and anxiety. Since it is effective in the secretion of hormones, effects such as fatigue and loss of appetite can also be seen as a result of melatonin deficiency.

Study: “Melatonin and human aging: Studies on the pineal gland-aging, melatonin deficiency and chronobiosis”

Source: Experimental Gerontology, 2004

Findings: This study examined the role of melatonin deficiency in the aging process and the potential health effects of this deficiency. In particular, it has been suggested that melatonin production in the pineal gland decreases with age, which may have negative effects on sleep patterns, circulatory rhythms, and general health. The study showed that melatonin supplements may have positive effects on sleep patterns and general health in older individuals.

Who Can Use Melatonin?

People who want to use melatonin supplements should first go through a doctor’s checkup and determine whether they are suitable for the supplement. Those who have sleep disorders, jet lag, depression, and anxiety, and people who have been experiencing pain and fatigue for a long time can start using it as deemed appropriate by experts.

Are There Any Side Effects of Melatonin?

Melatonin can have rare side effects when taken as a supplement. The most common side effect is headache. If you are going to use it with chronic medication or have a serious illness, you can prevent side effects by taking melatonin supplements at the dose and duration deemed appropriate by your doctor. Taking more melatonin than the recommended dose and duration can cause side effects in a short time.

Possible side effects can be listed as follows:

  • Abnormal Liver Functions
  • Asthenia (Weakness)
  • Feelings of Avoidance
  • Lack of Energy
  • Night Sweats
  • Chest Pain
  • Headache
  • Dizziness
  • Nausea
  • Dermatitis (Skin Inflammation)
  • Debris
  • Dry Mouth
  • Mouth Ulcer
  • Anxiety
  • Indigestion – Heartburn
  • Hyperbilirubinemia
  • Hypertension – High Blood Pressure
  • Sleeping state
  • Abnormal Dreams
  • Insomnia
  • Numbness
  • Unrest
  • Pain in Arms and Legs
  • Dry skin
  • Menopause Symptoms
  • Migraine
  • Psychomotor Hyperactivity
  • Mood Swings
  • Protein in Urine – Proteinuria
  • Sugar in Urine – Glycosuria
  • Diarrhea
  • Stomach ache
  • Itching
  • Weight Gain
  • Aggression
  • Irritability
  • Tiredness

If an unexpected side effect occurs, you should get support from a health center as soon as possible.

Study: “Safety of melatonin in humans”

Source: Clinical Drug Investigation, 2015

Summary: This review evaluated the safety and side effects of melatonin in humans and summarized them based on literature data. It was stated that melatonin is generally safe in short-term low doses, but some side effects can be seen in long-term and high dose use. The most frequently reported side effects include headache, nausea, dizziness and daytime sleepiness. However, it was emphasized that serious side effects are rare and generally depend on the dose used and the health status of the individual.

How to Increase Melatonin in the Body?

Melatonin is produced naturally by the body. You can use the following suggestions to increase the melatonin value in the body:

If necessary, you can take supplements in the dose and for the duration deemed appropriate by your doctor.

  • You can speed up the increase by adding foods containing melatonin to your meals.
  • You should stay away from technological devices that have a blue light effect before sleep.
  • Try to keep the sleeping area as dark as possible.
  • Help increase melatonin by regulating bedtime and wake-up time.
  • Alcohol and cigarette consumption can be quit.
  • Daily coffee consumption should be reduced and minimized.
  • Sources of stress and anxiety should be avoided.
  • Consuming heavy meals before sleep should be avoided.
  • You should not spend time on your phone or tablet while falling asleep.

How to Understand Melatonin Hormone Deficiency?

When the body does not produce enough melatonin, a melatonin hormone deficiency may occur. This hormone deficiency manifests itself with some signs. To understand the melatonin hormone deficiency, you can follow these symptoms:

  • Constantly feeling tired and sleepy during the day,
  • Difficulty falling asleep and interrupted sleep,
  • Mood changes, sudden anger, and rage,
  • Frequent illness and weakening of the immune system,
  • Inability to adapt to time zone changes,
  • Being seriously affected by jetlag,
  • Heart palpitations and anxiety,
  • Lack of sexual desire and low energy levels can be experienced when the melatonin hormone is deficient.

Why Is Melatonin Secreted Better at Night?

Melatonin secretion in the body is controlled by the light and dark cycle. High daylight suppresses melatonin production. Darkness at the end of the day triggers melatonin secretion and allows it to be secreted more easily.

Circadian rhythm, which is our body’s internal clock, is effective in regulating sleep-wake cycles and other physiological processes. Thanks to this order, melatonin is secreted at a higher level in the body. Circadian rhythm works on a 24-hour cycle. Melatonin secretion begins by adapting to this cycle and is secreted in the amount necessary for the body. When night falls and the body prepares for sleep, the melatonin level rises and reaches the required level.

Study: “Light exposure and melatonin secretion in shift workers”

Source: Journal of Biological Rhythms, 2018

Findings: This study examined how light exposure affects melatonin secretion in shift workers. The effects of night work and the amount of light exposure during the day on melatonin levels in shift workers were investigated. The findings showed that night shift workers had lower melatonin levels at night, indicating that light can directly inhibit melatonin secretion.

Abbas Jahangir

I am a researcher and writer with a background in food and nutritional science. I am the founder of Foodstrend.com, our reputable online platform offering scientifically-backed articles on health, food, nutrition, kitchen tips, recipes, diet, and fitness. With a commitment to providing accurate and reliable information, we strive to empower our readers to make informed decisions about their health and lifestyle choices. Join us on Foodstrend.com's journey toward a healthier and happier lifestyle.

You may also like...

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *