Tangerine. It is one of the highest-producing fruits in the world, native to Southeast Asia, where citrus fruits originated about 20 million years ago. It is high in vitamin C , flavonoids, essential oils, and antioxidants that help prevent cancer. Of all citrus, it is the one with the most pleasant flavor.
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- 1 Origin
- 2 Taxonomy
- 1 Scientific name
- 1.1 Authors
- 2 Combinations for this basonym
- 3 Synonymy
- 4 Common name
- 1 Scientific name
- 3 Description
- 4 Properties
- 5 Nutritional value
- 6 Producing countries
- 7 Varieties
- 8 Uses
- 9 Cultivation
- 10 References
- 11 Sources
The mandarin comes from the tropical areas of Asia . It is believed that its name comes from the color of the costumes worn by the Mandarins, rulers of ancient China .
It can be said that it is a fruit native to China and Indochina.
- Citrus reticulata Blanco 
- White, Francisco Manuel
- Published in: Flora of the Philippines1837 . [two]
Combinations for this basonym
- Citrus × nobilis subf. reticulata (White) Hiroë
- Citrus × nobilis subf. reticulata (White) M. Hiroe 
- Citrus × aurantium f. delicious (Ten.) Hiroë
- Citrus × aurantium var. tachibana Makino
- Citrus × nobilis Lour.
- Citrus × nobilis subf. delicious (Ten.) Hiroë
- Citrus × nobilis subf. erythrosa (Yu. Tanaka) Hiroë
- Citrus × nobilis subf. reticulata (White) Hiroë
- Citrus × nobilis subf. succosa (Tanaka) Hiroë
- Citrus × nobilis subf. tachibana (Makino) Hiroë
- Citrus × nobilis subf. unshiu (Marcov.) Hiroë
- Citrus × nobilis var. delicious (Ten.) Guillaumin
- Citrus × nobilis var. major Ker Gawl.
- Citrus × nobilis var. ponki hayata
- Citrus × nobilis var. spontanea Ito
- Citrus × nobilis var. sunki Hayata
- Citrus × nobilis var. tachibana (Makino) Ito
- Citrus × nobilis var. unshiu (Marcov.) Tanaka ex Swingle
- Citrus × nobilis var. vangasy (Bojer) Guillaumin
- Citrus aurantium subsp. suntra Engl.
- Citrus chrysocarpa Lush.
- Citrus daoxianensis SW He & GF Liu
- Delicious citrus Ten.
- Citrus depressa Hayata
- Citrus erythrosa Yu. Tanaka
- Citrus madurensis var. delicious (Ten.) Sagot
- Citrus mangshanensis SW He & GF Liu
- Citrus nobilis Lour.
- Citrus nobilis var. delicious (Ten.) Swingle
- Citrus ponki Yu. Tanaka
- Citrus poonensis Yu. Tanaka
- Citrus reticulata subsp. Delicious (Ten.) Rivera, et al.
- Citrus reticulata subsp. tachibana Rivera, et al.
- Citrus reticulata subsp. unshiu (Marcov.) Rivera, et al.
- Citrus reticulata var. austere swingle
- Citrus succosa Tanaka
- Citrus suhuiensis Hayata
- Citrus sunki hort. ex Tanaka
- Citrus tachibana (Makino) Yu. Tanaka
- Citrus tachibana subfo. depressa (Hayata) Hiroë
- Citrus tachibana subfo. ponki (Yu. Tanaka) Hiroë
- Citrus tachibana subfo. suhuiensis (Hayata) Hiroë
- Citrus tangerina Yu. Tanaka
- Citrus tankan Hayata
- Citrus unshiu Marcov.
- Citrus vangasy Bojer
- Citrus voangasay Bojer 
- Citrus × aurantium f. delicious (Ten.) M.Hiroe
- Citrus aurantium var. tachibana Makino
- Citrus himekitsu Yu.Tanaka
- Citrus nippokoreana Yu.Tanaka
- Citrus × nobilis var. koozi Sisb.
- Citrus × nobilis var. Hayata poonensis
- Citrus otachihana Yu.Tanaka
- Citrus reticulata var. chrysocarpa (Lush.) Tanaka
- Citrus vangasay Bojer 
- Tangerine, mandarin
The mandarin tree can be much smaller or equal in size than the sweet orange tree , depending on the variety. At great age, some can reach a height of 25 feet (7.5 m) with high spreading of the branches. The tree is generally thorny, with thin branches, with both broad and thin leaves, lanceolate with minute rounded teeth and petioles with narrow wings.
The flowers are borne singly or in small groups in the axils of the leaves. The fruit is flattened, the skin bright orange or red-orange when ripe, loose and easily separated from the segments. The seeds are small, pointed at one end, and green inside.
Its properties are multiple and above all beneficial for health due to its content. In vitamins and mineral elements .
The mandarin is low in sugars, but its water content is higher than in the rest of the citrus fruits; It has a significant amount of vitamin C.
- It is very good, eat their membranes because these contain pectin, useful fiber used to reduce cholesterolin the blood . This polysaccharide present in the cell walls of vegetables , especially that of fruits, is used as a thickener in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.
- Its high content of vitamin Cmakes it intervene in the formation of collagen, as well as bones and teeth .
- Supports the production of white red blood cellswith the support of citric acid, favors the absorption of iron and provides resistance to infections.
- In infusion, the tangerine peel serves as a slimming agent. and it is proven to be anti-carcinogenic.
- The pulp contains vitamin C, vitamin B , citric acid , reducing sugar and carotene.
- It contains potassium, magnesium , calcium and bromine, although in smaller quantities. The potassium of the fruit, is a mineral necessary for the transfer and generation of the nervous impulse as well as for the normal muscular movement, it intervenes in the balance of the water of the cell both internally and externally.
- It contains provitamin A or beta carotene, which is transformed into vitamin A, in the body, the same one that is in greater quantity than other citrus fruits, at the same time this vitamin is essential for vision , the preservation of skin , hair, and mucous membranes, the bone system and especially for the immune system.
- It is a great bronchodilator and anti-inflammatory. Helps in the treatment of ulcers, supports the intestine and digestion .
- It has a great anti-infective and disinfectant power.
- Prevents the development of cardiovascular, degenerative diseasesand cancer .
- It has a great diuretic effect, eliminates kidney stones,
- It is beneficial in case of hyperuricemia or gout.
Among the nutritional properties of mandarin, it should be noted that it has the following nutrients:
|Calories||44.70 kcal.||Grease||0.20 g.|
|Sodium||1.10 mg.||Carbohydrates||9.20 g.|
|Fiber||1.80 g.||Sugars||9.20 g.|
|Protein||0.63 g.||Vitamin A||64.99 ug|
|Vitamin C||32.02 mg.||Calcium||34.53 mg.|
|Iron||0.30 mg.||Vitamin B3||0.41 mg.|
The main mandarin producing countries are: Brazil , the United States , China , Mexico , Spain , India , Iran , Italy and Argentina . In Spain , the maximum producer is the Valencian Community, followed by: Andalusia , Murcia , Catalonia and Baleraes .
There are 4 basic varieties of mandarins: satsumas, clementines, clemenvillas and hybrids.
Satsumas: they have little palate but they are the first to hit the market.
- Okitsu / Owari:few seeds, medium size, good flavor, good conservation. of the first season.
- Clausellina:low quality, scarce palate, of the first season.
Clementines: good flavor, they peel easily.
- Marisol:good size, good rind color, lots of juice, little palate, also one of the first of the season.
- Oronules:lots of juice, one of the first in season but with the best palate. Good shine and few seeds.
- Clemenule:available mid-season, good size and intense color. Lots of juice, great flavor and easy to peel. Few seeds. A mutation of this is the Clemenpons, a little smaller.
- Fine clementine:available mid-season. Small size, intense orange chlorine, lots of juice, the best flavor and easy to peel.
- Clemenvilla or Nova:medium-large size. Very reddish. Good quality, juicy, sweet and sour, easy to peel. Dries out when ripe.
- Ortanique:the latest. Medium size large, a bit flattened. Lots of juice, sweet. Difficult to peel. Intense color, La fortuna is another smaller hybrid variety.
Mandarins of all kinds are mainly consumed directly, or the sections are used in fruit salads, jellies, puddings, or in cakes. Very small types are canned in syrup. The essential oil from the squeezed peel is used commercially to flavor candies, jellies, ice cream, chewing gum and bakery products. Mandarin essential oil is a standard paste for flavoring carbonated beverages. The essential oil, with the terpenes and sesquiterpenes removed, is used in liqueurs . Petitgrain mandarin oil, distilled from the leaves, green twigs and fruits, has the same food applications.
Both mandarin essential oil and petitgrain oil, and their various tinctures and essences, are valued in the manufacture of perfumes, particularly in the formulation of flower and cologne compounds. They are produced mainly in Italy, Sicily and Algiers.
The mandarin has reached its maximum development in the subtropical areas. In these areas, production is seasonal and the quality of the fruit for fresh consumption is excellent. It is more resistant to cold and more tolerant to drought than the orange tree, but the fruits are sensitive. The limiting factor is the minimum temperature, since it does not tolerate those below 3ºC. Constant high temperatures maintain high levels of chlorophylls and their color is persistently green.
It needs permeable and low-limestone soils and a humid environment both in the soil and in the atmosphere . It is recommended that the soil be deep to ensure the anchoring of the tree , extensive exploration to ensure good nutrition and proper growth. Soils must have a balanced proportion of coarse and fine elements to guarantee good aeration and facilitate the passage of water, in addition to providing a structure that maintains a good state of humidity.
It demands a lot of macro and micronutrient fertilizer, since it frequently suffers from deficiencies, highlighting the deficiency of magnesium and zinc . Good watering must be provided, which does not saturate or wilt it, trying to maintain little humidity at 15 – 30 cm deep from the soil.
Pruning is more frequent than in the orange tree, since it is a species that can be very productive, which is why the breaking of branches is frequent and support structures are usually installed. Annual pruning is necessary in order to remove dead, weak or diseased branches and to invigorate the rest of the vegetation .
The harvest takes place in the months from March to August , this being the best time of yield and quality for fresh consumption. Mandarins must be harvested with great care to avoid bumps, wounds or other damages that affect the quality and their conservation.