Citrus technical instructions. Practical material written synthetically and with the greatest possible clarity to facilitate understanding of the cultivation process of the main citrus fruits produced in Cuba . Made by a group of authors from the Tropical Fruit Research Institute (IIFT) in its first edition in 2011. The text is structured in 10 chapters, in which they present a series of information and tables, which undoubtedly help the reader to better understand the topics. This edition has been financed by the European Union, within the framework of the “Local Support Program for the modernization of the Agricultural Sector in Cuba” (PALMA), implemented by the Ministry of Agriculture and the United Nations Development Program (UNDP).
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- 1 Synopsis
- 1 Plot
- 2 Contents
- 3 Source
Botanically, citrus fruits belong to the Rutaceae family , subfamily Aurantioideae . The fruits that are grown commercially belong to three main genera within this subfamily: Citrus , Fortunella and Poncirus . The best known species belong to the genus Citrus : Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck., Which groups sweet oranges, Citrus aurantium, L., bitter or sour oranges, Citrus reticulata, Blanco, mandarins , Citrus limon Burmf., Lemons true, Citrus paradisiMacf., Grapefruits and Citrus aurantifolia Swing., Sweet and sour limes.
It is considered that most of the species of the genus Citrus originate from the tropical and subtropical regions of Asia and the Malay Archipelago, and that from there, they have spread to many regions of the world. They were introduced to the New World in 1493 , during the second voyage of Christopher Columbus . Currently citrus fruits are grown in a wide belt between 40º north and south latitude, which is why they are consumed in a large number of countries .
In Cuba , citrus fruits were one of the main economic items in the country. Currently this crop presents a complex situation, given by the economic difficulties it presents, the effects caused by hurricanes and drought and the presence of high-impact diseases in the region and in the country, which constitute a danger for the plantations . It is necessary to establish a strategy so that productive levels can recover and return to being an exportable item.
The Technical Guide for the cultivation of citrus that is presented today has been prepared for the species that are grown in Cuba for commercial purposes: Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck ( oranges ), Citrus paradisi Macf. (grapefruits) and Citrus latifolia Tanaka (Persian Lima). It also includes the general aspects for the management of the crop and the specific ones for each of these three species.
- Botanical description
- Seedbeds and nurseries
- Plagues and diseases
- Weed control