10 Facts You Must Know About Meat

Meat is too valuable, for its flavor and its protein, iron, and B vitamins, to waste any of it. Part of the cook’s skill is to make good use of every bit.

Cook meat bones with beans or soup to extract all possible flavor, and nutrients too.

Use rendered fats in gravies and sauces and ground cracklings in quick breads.

The following information on the yield from various cuts of meat will help you decide how much to buy to get enough lean meat for a main-dish serving. It will also help you figure the cost per serving.

Much bone or gristle—a pound yields 1 to 2 servings. Examples are shank, brisket, plate, short ribs, spareribs, breast of lamb or veal.

Medium amount of bone—a pound yields 2 to 3 servings. Examples are whole or end cuts of beef round, veal leg or shoulder, ham with bone in; also steaks, chops, or roasts from the loin, rump, rib sections, or chuck.

Little bone—a pound yields 3 to 4 servings. Examples are center cuts of beef round, or ham; also lamb or veal cutlets.

No bone—a pound yields 4 to 5 servings. Examples are ground meat, boneless stew meats, liver or other variety or boneless meats.

Buying Meat

Homemakers who are after good buys at the meat counter will consider the grade and the cut.

Federal grades of beef usually found on the market are Prime, Choice, Good, Standard, and Commercial. Markets vary in the grades of beef carried and may offer only one or two, as for example, U. S. Choice and U. S. Good. The lower grades cost less per pound than similar cuts of higher grades and usually contain more lean. Beef is the meat most often sold with a U. S. Grade stamp, but lamb, mutton, veal, and calf are sometimes federally graded. Pork usually is not graded.

The cut refers to the part of the animal from which the meat comes. The buyer can usually save money by using the less tender cuts of beef and the less popular cuts of pork, lamb, and veal. These cuts cost less per pound but provide the same valuable protein as the more expensive cuts. Variety meats, such as liver, heart, and kidney, also provide high return in nutrition for money spent.

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In comparing costs, consideration must be given to the amount of bone, fat, and gristle because they affect the cost of the lean edible portion.

It pays to buy the cuts best suited to the cooking methods you use. Do you know what to choose for pot roasts, stews, and soups? Here is a handy guide.

For pot roasts, Swiss steaks, smothered steaks, other braised meats.—Beef round, rump, sirloin tip, flank, chuck, short ribs, heart, and liver. Spareribs and ham hocks. Pork liver and heart. Thick pork chops or ham slices or shoulder steaks. Lamb shoulder, neck, breast, shanks, heart, and liver. Veal round, rump, shoulder, and heart.

For stews, soups, or to cook before creaming or frying.—Beef, lamb, or veal neck. Beef plate and brisket (fresh or corned). Tongue (fresh or smoked). Veal or lamb shanks, kidneys, brains. Pork kidneys and brains. Veal, lamb, or beef sweetbreads.

To Make Meat Tender

Good cooking can help make any cut of meat a favorite main dish with the family. Here are some of the methods that skillful cooks use for less tender cuts:

Long, slow cooking, as for braised meats and stews.—For extra flavor first brown meat in a little fat. To braise, use little or no liquid except the juices that cook from the meat. Cook, closely covered, with low heat. To stew, add water to partially cover meat, cover kettle, and simmer.

Chopping, pounding, scoring.—The foodchopper helps make meat tender. After chopping, any meat cooks as quickly as a tender cut. Pounding, or scoring with a knife, before cooking is similar in effect to chopping but tenderizes meat less.

Seasonings

Meat itself is usually flavoring enough for the main dish. It is often browned in a little fat to develop its flavor. In combination dishes, highly flavored or cured meats such as ham, dried beef, corned beef, and sausage may lend more flavor than fresh meat.

When the meat is limited, other foods will add zest and additional food values. Tomatoes, onions, parsley, chives, green peppers, celery, sour cream, lemon, nippy or smoked cheese—all contribute in both ways.

Other seasonings your family may enjoy with meat are bay leaf, catsup, chili, curry, garlic, marjoram, paprika, sage, soy sauce, sweet basil, tabasco sauce, thyme, worcestershire sauce. Since these are used in small quantities, they are not expensive in the long run.

Seasoning is especially important for meat-extending dishes. Meat loaves and other dishes which combine meat with bland foods such as macaroni, rice, or potatoes depend on skillful seasoning for their goodness.

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A “boiled” dinner

2 pounds spareribs

1½ cups hot water

4 medium-sized potatoes, pared and halved

1½ cups canned or cooked green snap beans and liquid

Salt and pepper

Brown spareribs in fry pan without added fat. Add water and simmer about 1 hour.

Add potatoes to meat and cook until tender—about 25 minutes.

Add beans and liquid the last 10 minutes of cooking. If raw beans are used, add with potatoes.

Season with salt and pepper. Skim off excess fat before serving.

Menu Suggestion

Serve with crisp lettuce, tomato, and celery salad, and apple betty with lemon sauce for dessert.

For Variety

Beef short ribs may be used with longer cooking.

Corned beef, meaty ham hock, or ham bone may be used in place of the spareribs. Cover with water and simmer about 3 hours or until tender. Omit salt, and continue as above. Good with sauerkraut.

A variety of vegetables may be used in a “boiled” dinner. In addition to potatoes, use onions, large pieces of carrot, and wedges of cabbage. Add cabbage about 20 minutes before serving, as it cooks more quickly than the other vegetables.

Scotch meat patties

¾ pound ground beef

⅓ cup milk

¾ cup quick-cooking oats

Salt and pepper

2 tablespoons cooking fat or oil

1 cup water

¼ cup chopped celery

¼ cup chopped green pepper

¼ cup chopped onion

1 teaspoon worcestershire sauce

1 tablespoon flour

Combine meat, milk, oats, 1 teaspoon salt, and pepper. Make very thin patties; brown on both sides in the fat or oil in a fry pan.

Add water and vegetables; season with worcestershire sauce, salt, and pepper. Cook covered over low heat 30 minutes.

Blend flour with a little cold water, add slowly to the mixture, and cook until thickened, stirring occasionally.

Menu Suggestion

Serve with candied sweetpotatoes, cabbage and carrot salad, with fruit and cookies for dessert.

For Variety

Meat Balls and Tomato Sauce.—Form the meat mixture into small balls and brown in fat. Remove from pan and brown the vegetables in the fat. Add ½ cup water and ½ cup tomato paste. Add meat balls and seasonings and cook covered over low heat. Thickening may not be needed. Serve over spaghetti.

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Kidney stew

¾ pound veal or lamb kidneys

1½ cups diced potato

1 small onion, sliced

¾ teaspoon salt

1 tablespoon flour

1 egg yolk

Chopped parsley

1 tablespoon lemon juice

Cut the kidneys in half and wash well. Remove skin, blood vessels, connective tissue, and fat.

Cover kidneys with cold water, heat slowly to boiling, discard the water, and repeat the process until there is no strong odor and no scum on the water. Add about 1 quart fresh water and simmer kidneys until tender. Remove kidneys from broth and cut into small pieces.

Cook potato and onion in the broth. Add kidneys and salt.

Blend a little water with the flour, stir into broth. Cook a few minutes to thicken.

Stir some of the stew into the beaten egg yolk. Mix all together and add parsley and lemon juice. The heat of the stew will cook the eggs sufficiently.

Menu Suggestion

Serve with a green or yellow vegetable, apple and raisin salad, cookies or cake for dessert.

For Variety

Beef kidney may be used in place of veal or lamb if desired.

Soy meat loaf

¾ pound chopped meat

1½ cups vegetable liquid, tomato juice, or milk

2 ounces salt pork, diced (about ⅓ cup)

2 tablespoons chopped onion

½ cup chopped celery

¾ cup soy grits

2 tablespoons chopped parsley

2 teaspoons salt

¾ cup breadcrumbs

⅛ teaspoon pepper

Select one kind of meat or a mixture of two or more kinds.

Blend vegetable liquid, tomato juice, or milk with the meat.

Fry salt pork until crisp and remove from fat. Cook onion and celery in the fat for a few minutes.

Add all the ingredients to the meat and mix well.

Shape the mixture into a loaf and place on heavy brown paper on a rack in an uncovered pan.

Bake loaf at 350° F. (moderate oven) until well done and brown—about 1 hour.

Menu Suggestion

Serve with baked potatoes or squash, peas, and green salad, with apple crisp or peach cobbler for dessert.

For Variety

To vary the flavor, serve the loaf with brown gravy or tomato sauce.

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Sweet-sour spareribs, Chinese style

2 pounds spareribs

1½ cups water

¼ cup raisins

½ teaspoon salt

2 green peppers, cut in 6 pieces each

1½ tablespoons cornstarch

¼ cup sugar

¼ cup vinegar

Soy sauce

Cut spareribs into serving portions and brown in a fry pan over moderate heat—about 5 minutes on each side.

Add ½ cup of the water, the raisins, and salt.

Cover pan tightly and cook over very low heat 20 minutes.

Add green peppers. Stir in cornstarch blended with sugar, vinegar, and 1 cup of water.

Cover and continue cooking over low heat for 30 minutes. Stir occasionally and add more water as needed to prevent drying. Before serving add soy sauce to taste.

Menu Suggestion

Serve with rice or hominy grits and a green salad. For dessert, have fresh or baked fruit.

Spareribs in Another Way

Baked Spareribs.—Bake spareribs at 350° F. (moderate oven) until the meat is tender—about 1½ hours. Baste several times with a barbecue sauce, if desired.

Pork shoulder with savory stuffing

Remove the bones and any skin from a 5- to 6-pound fresh pork shoulder.

Sprinkle meat on inside with salt and pepper, and pile in some of the stuffing. Begin to sew edges of shoulder together to form a pocket, and gradually work in the rest of the stuffing. Do not pack tightly.

Sprinkle outside of shoulder with salt and pepper, and if desired with flour also.

Place the roast, fat side up, on a rack in a shallow uncovered pan. Roast without water at 350° F. (moderate oven) until tender—about 4 hours for a 5-pound shoulder. Turn roast occasionally. Remove strings before serving.

Serve with sweetpotatoes, fried apples, celery salad, and raisin pie.

Savory Stuffing

¼ cup diced celery and leaves

1 tablespoon diced onion

1 tablespoon chopped parsley

2 tablespoons cooking fat or oil

2 cups soft breadcrumbs

¼ teaspoon savory seasoning

Salt and pepper

Cook celery, onion, and parsley in fat or oil for a few minutes.

Add breadcrumbs and seasonings and stir until well mixed. This stuffing may be used with other meats and with poultry. Sausage, chopped tart apples, or chopped nut meats may be added.

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Swiss steak

1 pound beef or veal rump or round, cut about 1 inch thick

Salt and pepper

Flour

Cooking fat or oil

2 cups cooked or canned tomatoes or tomato juice

Season meat with salt and pepper, sprinkle with flour. Pounding helps make the meat tender.

Cut meat into serving pieces and brown in a little fat or oil.

Add tomatoes or juice, cover, and simmer gently until meat is tender—about 1½ hours.

Menu Suggestion

Serve with mashed potatoes, corn, lettuce salad, and prune whip.

For Variety

Swiss Steak With Brown Gravy.—Use water instead of tomatoes. When done, remove meat, add water if needed to make 1 cup total liquid, and if necessary thicken with flour blended with cold water.

Swiss Steak, Onion Gravy.—Add 2 cups sliced onions to Swiss Steak With Brown Gravy during the last half hour of cooking.

Spanish Steak.—Follow recipe for Swiss Steak, using ¾ pound meat. Brown ½ cup chopped onion and 1 chopped green pepper in fat. Cook 1 cup macaroni in boiling salted water. Mix macaroni, onions, and pepper with the tomato sauce and serve over meat.

Sausage with sweetpotato and apple

½ pound sausage

2 medium-sized sweetpotatoes

3 medium-sized apples

½ teaspoon salt

1 tablespoon flour

2 tablespoons sugar

½ cup cold water

1 tablespoon sausage drippings

Cut link sausage into ½-inch pieces.

Fry until well done. If bulk sausage is used, shape it into small balls before frying or break it up as it cooks.

Pare and slice potatoes and apples.

Mix salt, flour, and sugar together and blend with cold water.

Arrange layers of potatoes, apples, and sausage in a baking dish, pouring flour-sugar mixture over each layer. Top with apples and sausage, and add drippings.

Cover; bake at 375° F. (moderate oven) until apples and potatoes are tender—about 45 minutes.

Menu Suggestion

Serve with a crisp green salad. For dessert have a well-chilled creamy rice pudding made with eggs and milk to supplement the protein from the small serving of meat. If you double the amount of sausage in the main dish, you will not need to choose a dessert that supplies additional protein.

For Variety

Replace the sausage with thin slices of smoked pork shoulder, or thin shoulder pork chops, well browned.

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Main-dish soup

3 or 4 pounds meaty soupbones (beef or veal shank or shortribs)

Drippings or other fat

Bay leaf, if desired

3 cups diced vegetables

Salt and pepper

Have bones cracked and remove small slivers. Brown in fat in a large kettle. Cover with water, add bay leaf, and simmer until meat is tender enough to fall from bones—3 to 4 hours.

Add vegetables such as onion, carrots, and potatoes during the last half hour of cooking.

Remove bones from broth. Cut up meat and add to the soup. Season to taste.

Menu Suggestion

Serve with green salad and fruit pie. If there isn’t much meat, serve cottage cheese salad or serve cheese with pie.

For Variety

Onion Soup.—Omit other vegetables. Slice 4 medium-sized onions and brown in drippings before adding to the meat broth. Serve piping hot, topped with toasted bread sprinkled with grated cheese—the traditional French way of serving.

Beet Soup.—To 1 quart broth and meat add 2 large beets, grated or ground, 1 cup chopped cabbage, and 2 chopped onions. Simmer until vegetables are tender. Season with salt and pepper. Top each serving with sour cream.

Brown beef stew

1 pound boneless stewing beef

Salt and pepper

Flour

Drippings or other fat

1½ cups water

3 potatoes, diced

2 onions, sliced

3 carrots, diced

1 cup raw snap beans

Cut meat into inch cubes. Sprinkle with salt and pepper, roll in flour, and brown in the fat.

Add water, cover, and simmer until almost tender—2 to 3 hours.

Add vegetables, season with salt and pepper, and continue to simmer, covered, until vegetables are done. Stir occasionally.

Menu Suggestion

Serve with coleslaw or green salad, and a baked pear or peach for dessert.

For Variety

Green-Tomato Stew.—Use ½ chopped onion in place of sliced ones. Brown with the meat. Use 2 medium-sized green tomatoes, quartered, instead of beans.

Lamb or Veal Stew.—Use breast or neck of lamb or veal in place of beef and ½ cup diced turnips instead of beans.

Quick Stew With Hamburger.—Use hamburger in place of stewing meat. Brown the meat, add vegetables and water and simmer. The stew will be done in half an hour or less.

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Meat-potatoburgers

¾ pound chopped raw beef

¾ cup chopped or coarsely grated raw potato

¼ cup chopped or grated onion

2 tablespoons chopped green pepper

1 teaspoon salt

1 egg

Drippings or other fat or oil

1 cup tomato juice or puree

1 tablespoon flour

Mix all ingredients except fat, tomato juice, and flour. Form into 4 or 5 flat cakes.

Brown the cakes on both sides in fat or oil in a fry pan. Add tomato juice, cover, and simmer slowly until done, about 25 minutes.

Remove cakes and keep them hot. Mix flour with a little water and stir slowly into the liquid in the pan. Cook until thickened, stirring occasionally. Serve this sauce with the cakes.

Menu Suggestion

Serve with mashed or buttered squash and apple-celery-raisin salad. Add protein to the meal with peanut butter cookies or cheese and crackers for dessert.

With Cooked Meat and Potatoes

Meat and Potato Cakes.—Combine 1½ cups diced or chopped cooked meat, 2 cups mashed potatoes, 1 egg, and 2 tablespoons chopped parsley. Mold into flat cakes, flour lightly, and brown in a little hot fat or oil.

Ham and scalloped potatoes

4 medium-sized potatoes, sliced

1 tablespoon grated onion

2 cups hot milk

½ pound thinly sliced ham, cut in serving pieces

Salt, pepper

Put half of the potatoes into a greased baking dish. Sprinkle with half the onion, a little salt, and pepper. Use salt sparingly.

Add ham. Cover with rest of potatoes, seasonings, and onion.

Add milk until it barely shows between the potato slices on top. Save rest of milk to add during cooking if needed.

Cover dish and bake at 350° F. (moderate oven) about 1 hour. Remove cover last 15 or 20 minutes to allow potatoes to brown on top.

Menu Suggestion

Serve with tomato juice, snap beans, and cabbage salad. Choose a fruit dessert such as dried-fruit whip.

Other Potato-Meat Dishes

Use ham trimmings, cheese, roast meat, chipped dried beef, frankfurters, or corned beef in place of ham in the recipe above.

Mashed Potato-Meat Pie.—Moisten leftover mashed potatoes with hot milk and beat until fluffy. Put a meat stew in a baking dish, top with the potatoes, and brown lightly at 400° F. (hot oven).

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Liver loaf

1½ pounds liver

2 tablespoons fat or meat drippings

¼ cup chopped onion

¼ cup chopped celery

¼ pound pork sausage

1 teaspoon salt

1 cup soft breadcrumbs, mashed potatoes, or cooked rice

1 egg, beaten

About ⅔ cup milk or canned tomatoes

Brown the liver lightly in the fat. Chop fine.

Brown the onion and celery in the fat and add to the liver.

Add the rest of the ingredients, using just enough milk or tomatoes to moisten the mixture well.

Pack firmly into a loaf pan to shape. Bake in the pan or turn out on a rack in a shallow pan for baking. Bake at 350° F. (moderate oven) 1½ to 2 hours.

Menu Suggestion

Serve the loaf with spanish sauce (see recipe), buttered carrots, tossed green salad, and ice cream or fruit gelatin.

Spanish sauce

2 tablespoons chopped onion

2 tablespoons fat or meat drippings

1 tablespoon flour

2 cups cooked tomatoes

½ cup chopped celery

½ cup chopped green pepper

Salt and pepper

Brown the onion in the fat and blend in the flour. Add the other ingredients and cook about 20 minutes, or until rather thick.

Tongue-and-corn casserole

3 tablespoons butter or margarine

1 teaspoon finely chopped onion

2 tablespoons finely chopped pimiento

3½ tablespoons flour

1¼ cups milk, broth from tongue, or water with 2 beef bouillon cubes

¼ teaspoon salt

1½ cups chopped cooked tongue

1⅓ cups whole-grain corn, drained

⅓ cup grated cheese

¼ cup fine dry breadcrumbs mixed with butter or margarine

Melt butter or margarine and blend in flour and salt. Stir in the liquid, and cook and stir over low heat until thick and smooth.

Add rest of ingredients except breadcrumbs, and mix well.

Turn the mixture into a greased shallow baking dish and sprinkle top with crumbs.

Bake at 350° F. (moderate oven) 20 to 30 minutes, or until sauce is bubbly and crumbs are brown.

Menu Suggestion

Serve with raw cranberry relish and Swiss chard or kale, with pumpkin custard for dessert.

For Variety

In place of tongue use 1½ cups of chopped cooked meat such as chicken, turkey, or rabbit—or 4 frankfurters cut in thin crosswise slices. Brown the meat lightly in the butter or margarine before adding the flour, salt, and pepper.

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Poultry …

Like other meats, poultry has protein of high quality and is a good source of iron and the B vitamin niacin.

In retail markets poultry is usually sold “ready-to-cook”; occasionally, “dressed” or live. Ready-to-cook style comes either whole or cut up, and either freshly eviscerated or frozen; some is labeled to show government inspection and grading, some inspection only.

“Dressed” means that only blood and feathers have been removed. “Ready-to-cook” means that blood, feathers, head, feet, and viscera have been removed, and the bird has been thoroughly cleaned inside and out.

Price per pound of a dressed bird includes weight of head, feet, and viscera. A ready-to-cook bird is weighed and priced after this waste is removed. Therefore, though the price per pound is lower for the dressed bird, the cost per pound of actual poultry meat is about the same in the two styles.

Most chickens are sold in the following classes at these ages and weights:

Class Age Ready-to-cook weight
    Pounds
Broilers or fryers 8 to 10 weeks 1½ to 2½.
Roasters 3 to 5 months 2½ to 4½.
Stewing chickens over 10 months 2 to 5½.

Stewing chickens—sometimes called “fowl” or “hens”—are hens old enough so that the tip of the breastbone has hardened. They need long slow cooking with steam or water to make the meat tender. They are often a good buy because they tend to have a higher proportion of meat to bone than younger chickens. A 5-pound dressed hen (3¾ pounds ready-to-cook) will give about 4 cups cooked meat coarsely cut, enough for at least two meals for a family of four if extended dishes are used—10 to 11 servings each containing 2 ounces of chicken.

Turkeys are sold in three classes based on weight and age: (1) Fryers or roasters, (2) young hens and young toms, (3) hens and toms. A fryer-roaster turkey, or a quarter or half of a larger turkey is often an economical roast, and can be made as attractive as the traditional big bird.

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Stewed or steamed whole chicken

Prepare a fully drawn stewing chicken for cooking: Pull out pin-feathers and singe bird over flame; wash well, rinse, and dry. Clean giblets.

Stewed Whole Chicken.—Place the bird on a rack in a kettle and add water to half cover bird. Salt water lightly. Cover kettle and simmer until chicken is tender, turning occasionally for even cooking. Three to 4 hours will probably be needed.

Cook giblets with the chicken, removing them as soon as done.

Cool chicken in broth, breast down, an hour or more.

The cooked whole bird may be browned with or without stuffing. Coat it with fat, place it breast up on a rack in a shallow open pan, and brown at about 350° F. (moderate oven).

Steamed Whole Chicken.—Follow the same general directions as for stewing, but add water only to the level of the rack in the kettle and keep the bird breast up all the time. As the water boils away, add more. Steaming time will be 2 to 3 hours.

Stewed or Steamed Chicken, in Pieces

Cut a stewing chicken into pieces suitable for serving. Simmer in water to cover, or steam. Pieces take about as long to cook as a whole bird.

Chicken with dumplings

1 stewing chicken cut in pieces and stewed

3 to 4 cups broth

6 tablespoons chicken fat

3 to 6 tablespoons flour

Salt and pepper

Remove pieces of chicken from the broth and keep them hot. Skim fat from broth.

Blend fat and flour, stir in several spoonfuls of the broth, and pour the mixture into the rest of the broth, stirring constantly.

Cook this gravy until it is slightly thickened. Season to taste.

Dumplings

¾ cup sifted flour

2½ teaspoons baking powder

½ teaspoon salt

1 egg

⅓ cup milk

Sift flour, baking powder, and salt together.

Beat egg, add milk, and mix with the dry ingredients.

Drop by small spoonfuls on boiling chicken gravy, cover tightly, and cook 15 minutes. The cover must not be removed while the dumplings are cooking, for if the steam escapes they will not be light.

Menu Suggestion

Serve with broccoli or other green vegetable, gelatin vegetable salad, date-and-nut pudding.

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Curried chicken with carrots

1 stewing chicken cut in pieces and stewed or steamed

3 tablespoons chicken fat

1 pint chicken broth

½ cup sliced onion

3 tablespoons flour

¼ teaspoon curry powder

2 cups cooked shredded carrots

Salt

Take cooked chicken from the broth. Skim off fat and measure quantities of fat and broth needed.

Make sauce: Cook onion in fat for a few minutes. Blend in flour and curry powder. Add broth, and cook until smooth and thickened, stirring constantly.

Mix chicken and carrots with sauce. Add salt to taste.

Leftover cooked lamb, pork, or veal may be used instead of chicken.

Menu Suggestion

Serve with a border of flaky rice and a green vegetable. Start the meal with tomato juice and have fruit sundae for dessert.

For a company meal pass a relish dish of several of the following: Chopped hard-cooked eggs, chopped peanuts, sweet pickle relish, finely diced celery, chopped raw onion. Include shredded fresh coconut, too, if you live where it is available and inexpensive. Guests can sprinkle these tidbits over the rice and chicken as desired.

Roast turkey quarter or half

You can roast turkey quarters or halves stuffed or unstuffed.

Rub inside of cleaned turkey part with salt. To keep meat from drying, fasten skin with skewers over meat at bone edge all around cavity. Or with big needle and heavy cord, lace across cavity, catching the skin with each stitch.

On a front quarter or half, sew wing tightly to body or fasten with skewers put in firmly at an angle. On a rear quarter or half, sew drumstick to tail.

Stuffing may be baked separately while the turkey cooks or, if preferred, quarters or halves may be stuffed and then roasted. Use heavy paper to hold stuffing in place and lace cord across paper from side to side, catching skin with each stitch.

Place turkey part, skin side up, on a rack in roasting pan. Cover with thin greased cloth or brush skin with fat. Do not add water. Do not cover pan. Roast at 325° F. (slow oven), basting several times with drippings.

Quarters weighing 3½ to 5 pounds require 3 to 3½ hours to roast; those weighing 5 to 8 pounds, 3½ to 4 hours. A half turkey weighing 7 to 9 pounds ready-to-cook takes 3¾ to 4½ hours. A larger half-bird takes longer.

Serve with mashed potatoes or turnips, snap beans, cranberry relish, and fruit or fruit pie.

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Cooked and canned meats and poultry …

You can often save time and money by purchasing meat that will serve for two or more meals. Buy a smoked pork shoulder, a pot roast, or a stewing hen and plan your menus for several days around it.

Since meat is one of our more expensive foods, you may want to economize by reducing the size of meat servings. But meat is one of our best-liked foods. We want to keep the savory meat flavor in main dishes and provide enough protein in the family diet, too. Fortunately, both economy and sturdy meat servings can be achieved by wise use of meat-extending main dishes, using cooked and canned meats.

Least expensive of the meat extenders are the cereal foods—breadcrumbs in meat loaf, biscuit topping on a chicken pie, macaroni with meat in Italian-style dishes, rice cooked in chicken stock as in chicken risotto. The meat protein supplements the protein in the cereals and the result is a nutritious main dish.

Or you may want to extend a comparatively small amount of cooked meat with other high-protein foods such as milk, eggs, or cheese. These are the makings of such main dishes as creamed lamb, ham and egg scramble, or a beef and vegetable casserole with grated cheese on top.

When there is too little meat left for the basis of a main dish, use these small amounts for flavor and whatever protein they give. Try bits of cooked meats or poultry to season scalloped potatoes, macaroni, soups, salads, or sandwich spreads. Chop crusty brown chicken or turkey skin and add to gravy or a casserole mixture.

Some of the cooked luncheon meats are relatively low-priced and are as protein-rich as many of the more expensive meats. For example, a pound of bologna has as much protein as a pound of smoked ham and even a little more than a pound of beef with a moderate amount of bone and fat. Some of the canned meats provide economical main dishes, too, especially when extended with other foods.

Cool quickly any leftover meat, broth, or gravy (set pan in iced or very cold water); refrigerate at once. Store in the coldest part of the refrigerator. Cooked meat loses flavor quickly; cover or wrap loosely and plan to use within 1 or 2 days. Broth, gravy, and sauce made with meat are highly perishable. Store these covered and use within 1 or 2 days.

On the following pages are suggestions for extended dishes using cooked and canned meat and poultry. Other recipes will be found in the section on cereal foods.

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Browned hash

1½ cups chopped cooked meat

3 cups chopped cooked potatoes

1 onion, finely chopped

Broth or milk

Seasoning to taste

The meat, potatoes, and onion may be chopped by hand or put through the food chopper, depending on the texture desired. Mix meat, potatoes, and onion thoroughly. Moisten with a little broth or milk, if desired, and season to taste. Spread mixture in an even layer in a lightly greased fry pan.

Cook slowly until browned on the bottom. If desired, turn and brown on the other side.

Turn hash out on a platter and garnish with parsley.

Menu Suggestion

Serve with cream of tomato soup, cooked green cabbage with grated cheese, and baked apple.

For Variety

Hash Cakes.—Make the meat and vegetable mixture into flat cakes and fry slowly on both sides until crusty.

Pork and Potato Fry.—Chop 1½ cups canned cured pork loaf and brown it lightly in a fry pan. Add 3 cups sliced or diced cooked potatoes and cook until brown on one side. Turn and brown on the other side.

Chop suey

1 medium-sized onion, sliced thin

1 green pepper, cut in slivers

1½ tablespoons cooking fat or oil

1½ cups celery, cut in slivers

2 hard tart apples

1 cup thin gravy or broth

1½ cups cooked and diced lean pork

Soy sauce and salt

Brown onion and green pepper in fat or oil.

Mix in the celery and the apple cut into small thin slices.

Add gravy or meat broth. Cover and cook 5 minutes.

Add meat and season to taste with soy sauce and salt. If desired, thicken with a little cornstarch mixed with water.

Heat thoroughly.

Menu Suggestion

Serve with flaky cooked rice, beets, lettuce salad, almond or oatmeal cookies.

For Variety

Cooked chicken, turkey, or beef may be used in the chop suey instead of pork.

Other vegetables may be used—carrots, radishes, Jerusalem artichokes, bean sprouts. Brazil nuts, thinly sliced, are also good.

Fried noodles may also be served with the chop suey mixture to add crispness.

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Chicken a la king

3 tablespoons chicken fat or butter or margarine

2 tablespoons flour

½ cup milk

1 cup chicken broth

Salt and pepper

½ green pepper, diced

½ cup mushrooms, cut in pieces

1 egg yolk

1½ cups diced cooked chicken

1 pimiento, chopped

Make white sauce: Melt 2 tablespoons of the fat and stir in the flour. Add milk and broth and cook until thickened, stirring constantly. Season with salt and pepper.

Melt the remaining tablespoon of fat, add green pepper and mushrooms and cook a few minutes over low heat.

Beat egg yolk, stir in a little of the sauce, and add to rest of sauce. Add the rest of the ingredients and cook until mixture is hot.

Serve in patty shells or on crisp toast, mashed potatoes, or waffles.

Menu Suggestion

Serve with green peas, carrot and raisin salad, and lemon chiffon pie.

For Variety

Cooked turkey, giblets, ham, veal, pork, or tuna fish may be used instead of chicken.

Cooked rabbit meat may be used. Add ½ teaspoon grated onion and ½ tablespoon lemon juice to the recipe for chicken a la king.

Chicken timbales

1½ cups cooked rice

1½ cups diced cooked chicken

1 tablespoon finely diced onion

2 eggs, beaten

1 cup milk

⅓ cup chicken broth or milk

½ teaspoon salt

Pepper

Mix all ingredients together. Divide mixture among custard cups or individual baking dishes.

Place cups in pan of very hot water and bake at 350° F. (moderate oven) about 30 minutes or until a knife inserted in the center of timbale comes out clean.

Menu Suggestion

Serve with glazed carrots, spinach with lemon, pear salad with cream or cottage cheese and nuts, and gingerbread for dessert.

For Variety

Cooked ham, pork, turkey, fish, or rabbit may be used in place of the chicken.

If you have less than the 1½ cups of chicken (or other meat) the recipe calls for, stretch the meat with sliced hard-cooked eggs and cooked peas. For a company meal, add mushrooms, fresh or canned.

Mushroom sauce may be served on the timbales.

Cooked macaroni, spaghetti, or noodles may be substituted for the cooked rice.

21

Luncheon-meat cups

2 tablespoons butter or margarine

2 tablespoons flour

1 cup milk

Salt and pepper

2 cups cooked peas, seasoned

1 tablespoon cooking oil or fat

8 thin slices luncheon meat

Make white sauce: Melt the butter or margarine, blend in the flour, and add milk slowly. Cook until thickened, stirring constantly. Add salt and pepper to taste.

Add peas to sauce and heat.

Heat fat or oil and brown luncheon meat, allowing edges to curl to form cups. Put 2 cups together for each serving and fill with the hot creamed peas.

Menu Suggestion

Serve with hash browned potatoes and a mixed fruit salad, with baked custard or whipped gelatin dessert.

Other Ways to Use Luncheon Meat

Broiled.—Brush luncheon-meat slices with fat. Broil lightly. Serve with broiled tomato slices sprinkled with grated cheese.

Birds.”—Place stuffing on thin slices of luncheon meat, roll, and fasten with skewers or toothpicks. Brown lightly and cover the pan until the birds heat through.

Salad.—Mix diced luncheon meat with chopped pickles, celery, and carrots. Add salad dressing.

Curried lamb

1 cup diced celery with tops

1 small onion, diced

3 tablespoons cooking fat or oil

2 cups diced cooked lean lamb

¾ cup brown gravy

Curry powder

2 drops tabasco sauce

Salt

Brown celery and onion slowly in the fat or oil.

Add meat, gravy, and seasonings. Use ⅛ to 1 teaspoon curry powder, as desired.

Stir over low heat until well mixed and hot. If too dry, add boiling water.

Menu Suggestion

Serve with flaky cooked rice, snap beans, coleslaw, and for dessert sweetpotato pie or pineapple chiffon pie.

For Variety

To make a savory meat pie: Omit the curry powder and tabasco sauce. Pour heated meat, vegetables, and gravy into a casserole and top with crisp, golden-brown baking-powder biscuits just before serving.

Green peas and small potatoes may be added to or used in place of the onions and celery in the meat pie.

Serve crisp tossed lettuce salad with the meat pie, and for dessert have a pineapple and orange fruit cup and oatmeal cookies made with raisins and peanuts.

22

Frankfurter and potato soup

2 cups diced potatoes

1 small onion, sliced

1½ cups boiling water

4 frankfurters

1¾ teaspoons salt

Pepper

2 cups milk

2 tablespoons finely chopped parsley

Cook potatoes and onion in boiling water until soft. Put through a ricer or mash slightly.

Cut frankfurters into ¼-inch slices.

Add frankfurters, seasonings, and milk to potato mixture.

Heat thoroughly, add parsley, and serve.

Menu Suggestion

Serve with a salad of chopped lettuce, tomato, and celery. Have dried-fruit upside-down cake for dessert. Cooked apricots and prunes make a colorful cake.

For Variety

Salami or other luncheon meat, cut in pieces, may be used instead of frankfurters. Allow one slice per person. Or sprinkle the soup with chopped cooked ham before serving.

Fresh sausage also may be used. Dice or crumble the meat and fry until crisp before adding it to the soup.

Pork souffle

2½ tablespoons butter or margarine

2½ tablespoons flour

1 cup milk

3 eggs, separated

1⅓ cups finely chopped cooked or canned pork

1 teaspoon finely chopped onion, or onion juice

2 teaspoons finely chopped green pepper

½ teaspoon salt

Make a thick white sauce: Melt the butter or margarine, blend in the flour, and add the milk. Stir and cook over low heat or hot water until thickened. Cook a little longer, and cool slightly.

Beat the egg yolks and blend into the cooled sauce. Stir in the meat, onion, and green pepper.

Add the salt to the egg whites and beat until stiff but not dry. Blend the meat mixture into the egg whites.

Turn into a shallow greased baking dish set in a pan of hot water.

Bake at 325° F. (slow oven) about 50 minutes, or until set and lightly browned. Serve at once.

Menu Suggestion

Serve with brussels sprouts or panned cabbage, lettuce salad, and hot apple cobbler for dessert.

For Variety

Stuffed Green Peppers.—Fill 4 parboiled peppers with chopped pork mixed with onion, salt, and enough gravy, broth, or cream to moisten. Set peppers in water in muffin cups and bake at 350° F. (moderate oven) 20 to 30 minutes.

 

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